PHOTOGRAPHY: BACK TO BASICS (PART 2) Aperture
Getting to grips with Aperture
For most of us, taking that first step in switching to the dreaded Manual Mode on your camera can seem ludicrous. Why on earth should I switch to Manual Mode, when the camera can easily take a picture for me? Why should I even leave Auto Mode, for that matter? If it’s there, why can’t I use it.
Well, you can, but may not end up with a photo you were hoping for. Once you understand that taking a photo is basically exposing light to a sensor, or film, you are halfway there. Last month we spoke about the holy trinity of photography that is the Exposure Triangle, the ISO, Shutter Speed and Aperture.
And I call it the holy trinity, because these three elements work together. They depend on each other, and we combine them in such a way so when we hit that shutter release, the amount of light hitting that sensor or film is just right to get you a “good exposure.” And I put good exposure in quotation marks, because exposure really depends on whether you are happy with the result. Confused yet?
Basically, ISO, Shutter Speed and Aperture (or f stop) do exactly the same thing. They control how much of that light hits the sensor. ISO, the film or sensor speed, does that by being either too sensitive to light, (ISO 3200), or not very sensitive (ISO 50). When shooting analogue, you won’t get very far if you don’t put a film in the camera, so you choose the right ISO for the light conditions. If it’s too bright, you use a less sensitive ISO (lower number) like 50, or 100. If it’s cloudy you use a more sensitive film (higher number) like 400, and the darker it gets the more sensitive film you will need.
This is the same with digital cameras. Before we start shooting, we check the light and set our ISO speed accordingly.
This month’s focus (no pun intended) is the aperture. Found in your lens, (not the camera) the aperture basically does the same job that the Iris in your eyes does. If it’s too bright it closes, and if it’s too dark it opens. The wider the aperture can open, the more expensive the lens usually is, so now you know why some lenses are ridiculously expensive.
Aperture is measured in F-stops like f1.2, f5.6, f11, etc. The lower the number the wider the aperture, and more light will hit the sensor, or film, so an aperture of f1.2 is extremely open, and an aperture of f32 is tiny. Think about it like this: Small number, big hole, big number, small hole.
So when we expose, we can choose to let in more or less light hit our sensor or film by opening and closing the aperture, just like a tap of water filling up a bucket. The more you open the tap, the more water runs out, and vice versa.
Now, you are probably wondering what setting to use when you expose. If ISO, aperture, and shutter speed all do the same thing I.e. controlling the light that hits our sensor or film, what do we prioritise on? When do we use aperture? When do we use shutter speed?
Well, we will be talking about shutter speed in the next article, but when it comes to aperture, apart from controlling the amount of light that hits the sensor, it also does something else that is quite magical: It controls how much of the area behind and in front of your subject is in focus. You might have noticed that landscape shots are always sharp, showing the entire scene in focus, while the background in portrait shots is usually blurry in an effort to isolate the subject you are photographing from anything distracting in the background.
This control of the sharpness of the foreground and background is called depth of field, and the aperture is the tool with which we control that depth of field. The wider the aperture (low number, bigger hole, like f1.2) the blurrier the background will be, and the smaller the aperture (high number, small hole, f32) the sharper the background will be.
In other words, if you are shooting landscapes, you would be better off setting a smaller aperture, like f16 or f22, in order to make sure that the entire scene you are capturing is sharp, whereas if you are shooting portraits, you should really set a wider aperture like f2.8, f3.5 or f4 to try and blur the background and lead the viewer’s eye straight to your subject.
One thing to remember, however, is that zooming in and out with your lens, as well as the physical distance between you and your subject, also affects how blurry or sharp your background will be. The closer you are physically and by zooming in with your lens, the blurrier the background will be, and the further away you are physically and by zooming out, the sharper the background will be.
A great way to see how apertures work is to click on this link to see how the aperture works on this canon exposure simulator, and to get to grips with exposure check out our Digital Photography workshops. Have fun!
Advice from LSP Trainer Derek Lomas
Derek Lomas is living proof that it’s never too late to start photography as a career. The LSP Product Photography trainer worked for four years as a shipping clerk after leaving school, and he hated every minute of it.
So he joined an evening photography course and he hasn’t look back since. With clients like L’Oréal and Yves Saint Laurent, Derek is now an established photographer with an incredible portfolio, and was eager to share some of his experiences, and offer some tips to our students.
Photo Tip of the Month: Elements of Design
You will forgive us for repeatedly mentioning Henri Cartier-Bresson, but in this month’s photography tip, I can think of no one better than the great master himself when it comes to talking about elements of design.
Bresson said that the greatest joy for him while photographing was looking for Geometry. In other words he looked for structures, saying that it was a visual pleasure, an intellectual pleasure to put everything in the right place.
“It’s a recognition of an order that is in front of you,” he said.
iPhone photography tips
The iPhone Photography Awards has gotten us all excited and so today’s blog is all about tips on how to understand some of the settings on your iPhone to help you improve your shots, as well as some apps to help you edit, and even add a different feel and “film” effect to your photos.
Apple is giving standard digital camera companies a run for their money. The picture quality for such a tiny little sensor is amazing (thanks to Sony), and the ease of access and user control is just incredible, but because the phone camera is set-up to be used by people without any photographic experience, it is inevitable that things will go wrong.
Madeinmedi hosts the founder of the London School of Photography
Text Source: HariMag (translated from Italian)
Images by Antonio Leanza
Madeinmedi hosts the founder of the London School of Photography
Madeinmedi this year opened its doors to the world of photography. Students from the Department of Photography will be present at the event with some of their work inside the exhibition. Young, future talented photographers will be able to gain new stimuli from Antonio Leanza, founder of the London School of Photography, who will be present at the show. Antonio, born Sicilian, brings with him forty years of artistic and profound photographic activity. After years of teaching and living in London, he opened the London School of Photography in early 2000. Madeinmedi wants to Award Antonio’s unshakable resolve in sharing his know-how, his vision and experience with cultures other than ours.
Free eBook – Photography Tips & Assignments
In December last year we prepared an e-book with a selection of Photo Tips & Assignments that have been published on a monthly basis since 2012.
They have been selected from the best of our Newsletter, reviewed and updated and include some of the winning photographs as well.
Some of you contacted us to make it available in the blog as well, so here is the link for download:
Photography and Life – an analogy
Photography is everywhere.
More accessible than ever before, taking pictures is now part of our daily lives.
We document everything: from what we eat at breakfast to the book we read at night.
Taking photos has become so natural that we forget how using a camera can be a tool to help us see life in a different way.
In composition, we can often improve the way a scene looks by adjusting how we’re looking at it. Learning to see things from varied angles and perspectives can only have a positive impact in every other aspect of our lives.
Photo Books You Need to Read #1 – Understanding Exposure
Do you have a photography obsession?
Today I’m confessing mine!
Do you enjoy Nature Photography?
Here are the best, hand picked for you, from National Geographic Nature Photographer of the Year Contest
At the start of the Odyssey, Homer calls upon the muses for inspiration, so if you feel uninspired, just think that even the greats felt exactly like you do.
In photography there are many sources of inspiration, but few can compete with National Geographic.